Dhaka(ঢাকা) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. Dhaka is a Mega city and one of the major cities of the South Asia. Located on the banks of the Buriganga River, Dhaka, along with its metropolitan area, has a population of 11 million, making it the largest city in Bangladesh. With its colourful history, Dhaka is known as the 'City of Mosques' and for its famous fine Muslin cloth which has a great ethnic value.Under Mughal rule in the 17th century, the city was also known as Jahangir Nagar, and was both a provincial capital and a centre of the world-wide muslin trade. The modern city, however, was developed chiefly under British rule in the 19th century, and soon became the second-largest city in Bengal after Calcutta (presently Kolkata). With the partition of India in 1947, Dhaka became the administrative capital of East Pakistan, and later, in 1972, the capital of an independent Bangladesh. During the intervening period, the city witnessed widespread turmoil; this included many impositions of martial law, the declaration of Bangladesh's independence, military suppression, devastation during war, and natural calamities.Modern Dhaka is the centre of political, cultural and economic life in Bangladesh. It has both the highest literacy rate - 72.3% - and the most diverse economy amongst Bangladeshi cities. Although its urban infrastructure is the most developed in the country, it is nonetheless a fighting metropolitan city with challenges such as pollution, congestion, and lack of adequate services due to the rising population. In recent decades, Dhaka has seen modernisation of transport, communications and public works. The city is attracting large foreign investments and greater volumes of commerce and trade. It is also experiencing an increasing influx of people from across the nation. To fight rising traffic congestion and population rise in the capital city, the national government has implemented a policy for rapid urbanisation of surrounding areas and beyond by recent introduction of ten year tax on income holiday for new construction of all types of facilities and buildings outside Dhaka.
Dhaka is located in central Bangladesh at 23°42′0″N, 90°22′30″E, on the eastern banks of the Buriganga River. The city lies on the lower reaches of the Ganges Delta and covers a total area of 153.84square kilometres (59.4sq mi). It consists of seven principal thanas — Dhanmondi, Kotwali, Motijheel, Paltan, Ramna, Mohammadpur, Sutrapur, Tejgaon — and 16 auxiliary thanas — Gulshan, Lalbagh, Mirpur, Pallabi, Shah Ali, Turaag, Sabujbagh, Dhaka Cantonment, Demra, Hazaribagh, Shyampur, Badda, Kafrul, Kamrangir char, Khilgaon and Uttara. In total the city has 130 wards and 725 mohallas.Dhaka district has an area of 1463.60 square kilometres (565 sq mi); and is bounded by the districts of Gazipur, Tangail, Munshiganj, Rajbari, Narayanganj, Manikganj.Tropical vegetation and moist soils characterise the land, which is flat and close to sea level. This leaves Dhaka susceptible to flooding during the monsoon seasons owing to heavy rainfall and cyclones.Dhaka experiences a hot, wet and humid tropical climate. The city is within the monsoon climate zone, with an annual average temperature of 25 °C (77 °F) and monthly means varying between 18 °C (64 °F) in January and 29 °C (84 °F) in August.Nearly 80% of the annual average rainfall of 1,854 millimetres (73 in) occurs between May and September. The environment of Dhaka is facing serious threats from pollution caused by the city's rapid expansion, congestion and industrial activities. Increasing air and water pollution emanating from traffic congestion and industrial waste are serious problems affecting public health and the quality of life in the city.Water bodies and wetlands around Dhaka are facing extinction as these are being filled up to construct multi-storied buildings and other real estate developments. Coupled with pollution, such erosion of natural habitats threatens to destroy much of the regional biodiversity.
National Parlaiment House (জাতীয় সংসদ ভবন )
Jatiyo Sangsad Bhaban (Bengali: জাতীয় সংসদ ভবন Jatio Shôngshod Bhôbon) is the National Assembly Building of Bangladesh, located in the capital Dhaka. It was created by architect Louis I. Kahn and is one of the largest legislative complexes in the world. It houses all parliamentary activities of Bangladesh.
There have been eight national elections in Bangladesh. The first and second Parliaments used the Old Shangshad Bhaban, which currently serves as the Prime Minister's Office.
Construction of the Jatiya Shangshad Bhaban began in 1961 a permanent building for the federal legislature of both West and East Pakistan. However, it was the eighth (and last) session of the second parliament of Bangladesh that first used it on 15th February, 1982 after its construction was completed on 28th January of the same year. The Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban has been in operation and has acted as the sole complex used as the National Assembly ever since.
The Jatiya Shangshad Bhaban was designed by the American architect Louis Kahn.
The Bangladesh National Museum
The Bangladesh National Museum (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ জাতীয় যাদুঘর), originally established on 20 March 1913, albeit under another name, and formally inaugurated on 7 August 1913, was accorded the status of the national museum of Bangladesh on 17 November 1983. It is located Shahbag, Dhaka. The museum is well organized and displays have been housed in several departments like department of ethnography and decorative art, department of history and classical art, department of natural history, and department of contemporary and world civilization. The museum also has a conservation laboratory.
Brief Description of Ahsan Manzil
Ahsan Manzil (Bengali: আহসান মঞ্জিল) was the official residential palace and seat of the Dhaka Nawab Family. It is situated on the banks of the Buriganga River in Bangladesh. Thepalace became the Bangladesh National Museum on 20 September 1992. It is constructed in the Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture.
Ahsan Manzil is one of the most significant architectural monuments of Bangladesh. Established on a raised platform of 1 metre, the two-storied palace measures 125.4 m by 28.75 m. The height of the ground floor is 5 metres and that of the first floor 5.8 metres. There are porticos the height of the ground floor, both on the northern and southern sides of the palace. An open spacious stairway comes down from the southern portico, extending onto the bank of the river through the front garden. There was once a fountain in the garden in front of the stairs, that does not exist today. The spacious north and south verandas of both the floors rest on semicircular arches. The verandas and rooms are covered with marble.
To construct the dome of Ahsan Manzil, the square room on the ground floor was given a round shape with brickwork in the corners. The room was then given an octagonal shape near the roof by squinches. This octagonal shape took the form of the drum of the dome. Finally, the kumud kali (buds of lotus) shaped dome was constructed by gradually slanting the eight corners to the peak. The dome is 27.13 m above the ground.
Brief Description of Lalbagh Fort
Lalbagh Fort (Bengali: লালবাগ দূর্গ) (also known as "Fort Aurangabad") is an incomplete Mughal palace fortress at the Buriganga River in the southwestern part of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Construction was commenced in 1678 by Prince Muhammad Azam during his 15-month long vice-royalty of Bengal, but before the work could complete, he was recalled by Aurangzeb. His successor, Shaista Khan, did not complete the work, though he stayed in Dhaka up to 1688. His daughter Iran Dukht nick named pari bibi (Fairy Lady) died here in 1684 and this led him to consider the fort to be ominous.
Lalbagh Fort is also the witness of the revolt of the native soldiers against the British during the Great Rebellion of 1857. As in the Red Fort in India, they were defeated by the force led by the East India Company. They and the soldiers who fled from Meerat were hanged to death at the Victoria Park. In 1858 the declaration of Queen Victoria of taking over the administrative control of India from the Company was read out at the Victoria park, latter renamed Bahadur Shah Park after the name of the last Mughal Emperor who led that greatest rebellion against then British empire.
Brief Description of Baitul Mukarram
Baitul Mukarram (Bengali: বায়তুল মোকাররম) is the national mosque of Bangladesh. Located at the heart of Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh, the mosque was completed in 1968. The mosque has a capacity of 30,000, giving it the respectable position of being the 10th biggest mosque in the world. However the mosque is constantly getting overcrowded. This especially occurs during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, which has resulted in the Bangladeshi government having to add extensions to the mosque, thus increasing the capacity to at least 40,000.